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They folded Kalugin in two and threw him out with the trash.

The Soviet Union of the s is often characterized as one of the most violent non-war periods of the twentieth century. The climate of fear was high, and Russian writers were often among the victims of these processes. According to official information, Xarms was arrested in and perished in a prison hospital in Novosibirsk in Xarms was considered to be the central Russian contributor to the genre of Surrealism of his day. The following ST is information provided on baby powder produced and sold in the Russian Federation.

Translate the entire text into English. Note the use of non-Russian terms in the Russian text. Why do you think this occurs? Compensation and semantic shifts 57 3. Pay special attention to all abbreviations. You are not expected to know these abbreviations. What, however, do you think would be the most efficient way to decipher the abbreviations?

Compare a typical text accompanying baby powder sold in the United States, given below, with the Russian ST given in Practical 5. What are the differences in the types of information required on the bottle between the USA and Russian Federation? Select five passages from the English ST and translate them into Russian.

Be sure to include at least one passage that has obvious overlap from the Russian and English source texts. Friction is caused by clothes rubbing against skin and folds of skin rubbing against each other. Skin is left feeling cool and comfortable. For you, use every day to help feel soft, fresh, and comfortable.

Directions: Shake powder into your hand and smooth onto skin. Store in a cool dry place. Warning: For external use only.

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Do not use on broken skin. Avoid contact with eyes. Do not use if quality seal is broken. Translate the following excerpt from the St Petersburg online newspaper, Fontanka. Pay special attention to the title of the article and the first subheading. Practicals based on texts related to 5. Read the ST carefully and then compare it with the TT below. I understand. Things to be done. This made everything that he was saying extremely ambiguous, because it was one thing if Lyubochka was late, but if Rationalization Engineer Lyubov Grigorievna Suxhoruchko was late, that was another thing altogether.

How many rationalization proposals are there? For the big shears.


For cutting the tin sheets. Frye 95—6 As we work with our CAM and CAM2 models, we see over and over again how multiple and diverse factors and functions are at work in any single speech act or combinations of speech acts. The more we know about the factors and functions of the ST, the more likely we will be successful in negotiating through the translation process in order to achieve a viable TT. In Chapter 2, we mentioned the term genre in connection with the CAM model, namely as one of the questions that arises in part in conjunction with the channel, but also overlapping to some degree with all of the remaining five factors, including specific authorial goals, the target audience, the cultural context intended and extended , the degree of aesthetics defined by the text, and code-based parameters of the text.

Essentially, the question of genre can be encountered in any of the six factors of the ST and this means that all texts may be potentially defined in terms of one or more genres, resulting in many potential hybrid genres. Skopos theory and text-type Functional theories of translation, which have moved the field forward by evaluating both processes and products, have made an important contribution to the study of translation. In this chapter, we will consider two of the major contributors to skopos theory — Katharina Reiss and Hans Vermeer This theory includes the necessary methodologies and strategies to derive a target text called the translatum.

There are several constraints that 1 must be applied in a specific order, 2 require coherency of the TT, and 3 articulate the central role of the translator. Note Practical 4. Munday 80 points out that the recognition of multiple and valid Textual genre, text types, and translation 63 target texts resulting from the translation process is one of the strengths of skopos theory; a weakness is the downgrading of the source text in the process.

These three fundamental categories give rise to a large number of potential realizations of text type and their resulting relationship to translation methods see Munday 74—5 for an excellent summary. It is important to note that Reiss recognizes hybrid texts and speaks about multiple functions being realized within a single text, but generally with one being dominant Reiss Reiss introduces a fourth text type, audio-medial, in which language is complemented with additional semiotic systems.

We will consider other contributions to genre in later chapters when we analyze more closely discourse and discourse-based approaches to translation. Our proposal for defining genre within the current work is a bi-level system that takes into consideration many of the points found in Jakobson, Lotman, Reiss, and Vermeer. Level one: two central questions In terms of the channel, we raised two other points that will serve as the frame within which we will address the notion of genre: 1 the text is oral or written, and 2 the medium of exchange oral types include phone call, face-to-face conversation, lecture, sermon, television, etc.

For additional reading on genre, we suggest Lotman ; Eco ; and House In addition to the first two textual issues raised above, we will briefly outline three basic genres, or types of texts, to assist in the translation process.

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There are multiple 64 Textual genre, text types, and translation theories of genre that are not considered in this chapter. Clearly, the number of potential genres could be limitless. Our goal, rather, is to create a rubric that will facilitate the translation process without making it unnecessarily awkward or difficult. Remember: A text may be defined by more than one genre. For the purposes of this work, we will treat literary genre as one general category, containing both poetry and prose fiction texts.

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Furthermore, it is important to keep in mind an important distinction that Frye defines concerning how these genre types are made from each other: Poetry can only be made out of other poems; novels out of other novels. Literature shapes itself, and is not shaped externally: the forms of literature can no more exist outside literature than the forms of sonata and fugue and rondo can exist outside of music. The use of literary texts in teaching Russian translation is motivated by several factors, including the following: 1. Textual genre, text types, and translation 65 News and advertising genre Publications in which the major goal is to share information make up the bulk of our second genre. These texts, even when they claim to be objective reporting, are often colored with rhetorical strategies to convince the audience that the information being conveyed is true and authentic. These first two genre types share an important characteristic: they may be fictional or non-fictional.

It is the crossing over from nonfiction to fiction that often causes serious problems for media sources across the globe.

An additional problem of current Russian media is a result of the democratic process. In the Soviet period, the mass media were tightly controlled by the government and the language of the press was stylistically well-defined. Journalists were trained in a uniform college-based curriculum, a fact that also contributed to the homogeneity of style seen in the printed media.

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Some of the past standards of print media have taken a hit across the globe, and Russia is no exception. In twenty-firstcentury Russia, a degree in journalism is hardly a prerequisite for work in the media, proof readers are no longer as careful as they were in the past, and the result is a good deal of poor writing especially on the internet and poor editing, resulting in texts that are often awkward and not without typographic errors.

Academic and scientific genre Publications in which the central goal is to further a body of knowledge on a particular subject or in a particular discipline or field are the essence of our third genre. These texts are most often the result of research and scholarship, and they may vary dramatically, for example, according to content, style, and length.

Practical exercises devoted to academic and scientific texts are found in Chapter Practical 6. Read carefully the following excerpt from chapter 3 of E. Once you have read the ST, make notes about how you would proceed in producing a TT of the same genre. Apply the bi-level distinctions given above. Identify phenomena at the grammatical, lexical, and discourse levels that present challenges in producing the TT. Evaluate each TT for strengths and weaknesses, and select the TT that best meets the following purposes: a TT commissioned for publication as a literary translation for English speakers in the twenty-first century; b TT commissioned as a gist translation for a scholar of twentieth-century science fiction in world literatures; c TT commissioned for a mathematician interested in the mathematical images in the text.

Comment on each of the chapter titles in the ST and the five TTs. Which one s do you prefer and why? If none, create your own version of the title and headings for this passage. TT 1 We, trans. Gregory Zilboorg New York: E.

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I feel almost as if you may thing I want simply to mock you and with a very serious face try to relate absolute nonsense to you. But first I am incapable of jesting, for in every joke a lie has its hidden function. And second, the Textual genre, text types, and translation 67 science of the United State contends that the life of the ancients was exactly what I am describing, and the science of the United State does not make mistakes! Yet how could they have State logic, since they lived in a condition of freedom like beasts, like apes, like herds?

What could one expect of them, since even in our day one hears from time to time, coming from the bottom, the primitive depths, the echo of the apes? Fortunately, it happens only from time to time, very seldom. Happily, it is only a case of small parts breaking; these may easily be repaired without stopping the eternal great march of the whole machine. And in order to eliminate a broken peg we have the skillful heavy hand of the Well-Doer, we have the experienced eyes of the Guardians … By the way, I just thought of that Number whom I met yesterday, the double-curved one like the letter S; I think I have seen him several times coming out of the Bureau of Guardians.

TT 2 We, trans. A Wall. A Table of Commandments. This is so laughable, so incredible that, after having written the above, I am apprehensive: what if you, my unknown readers, should take me for a malicious wag? What if you should suddenly get the notion that I am simply intent upon making cruel sport of you and, with a serious air, am telling you utterly unmitigated bosh.

But, first of all, I am incapable of jesting, inasmuch as the covert functioning of falsehood is a component of every jest, and secondly, Science in The One State affirms that the life of the ancients was precisely as I have described it — and Science in The One State is infallible. And besides, where was any logic of government to come from at that time, when people were living in a state of freedom — i.

What could one demand of them, when even in our time one hears at rare intervals a wild simian echo issuing from the shaggy depths, from somewhere close to the very bottom?