If this immensely powerful idea were more widely understood, then people would be less vulnerable to illusory correlation , more sceptical about merely anecdotal evidence, and capable of interpreting findings from any survey research, case study, correlational study, observational study, or quasi-experiment with appropriate caution. It is sustained by the increasingly popular doctrine that neuroscience can in principle replace traditional psychology, that it is already replacing traditional psychology, or in its strongest form that it has already replaced traditional psychology.
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This is a debilitating form of reductionism , based on the assumption that behaviour and mental experiences are closely correlated with neural processes, especially in the brain; but locating a mechanism in the brain does not amount to explaining the associated psychological phenomenon, as I can easily show with a Gedankenexperiment thought experiment and an example from nature.
First, imagine a super-intelligent alien trying to understand a working computer busy printing out my Dictionary of Psychology on a laser printer. Second, purposeful behaviour can occur naturally without any involvement of neural mechanisms. For example, the unicellular paramecium , found abundantly in stagnant ponds, moves about, avoids obstacles by swimming round them, gathers food, and retreats from danger.
It can turn round in a glass tube to escape, and it can even learn from experience, although some neuroscientists unsurprisingly question whether this is true learning. Yet a paramecium has no nervous system, and its single cell is not even a neuron ; therefore, it provides conclusive evidence that neuroscience cannot explain all forms of behaviour.
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I find thousands of the entries fascinating, but the entry defining heuristic , together with the various specific heuristics cross-referenced from it, describes ideas that have fascinated others sufficiently to be rewarded with the only two Nobel prizes ever awarded for purely psychological research.
A heuristic is a rough-and-ready procedure or rule of thumb for making a decision, forming a judgement, or solving a problem, and we all use heuristics all the time.
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The US researcher Herbert Simon introduced the term in its modern psychological sense in to explain how human decision makers with bounded rationality solve problems when they do not have the time or resources to examine all available possibilities thoroughly, and he received the first Nobel Prize for this work. Two decades later, the Israeli-American psychologists Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman discovered and investigated experimentally a large number of biases in human thinking that can be traced to particular heuristics, and in Kahneman was rewarded for this work with the second Nobel Prize, Tversky having died a few years earlier.
A typical example is the conjunction fallacy : undergraduate students were shown personality sketches of a hypothetical person called Linda young, single, deeply concerned about social issues, and involved in anti-nuclear activity and asked whether it was more probable that Linda was a bank teller or that Linda was a bank teller who was active in the feminist movement. The fallacy arises from the use of the representativeness heuristic , according to which people estimate the probability that something belongs to a particular class by judging how typical it is of that class.
Because Linda seems more typical of feminist bank tellers than of bank tellers in general, many people fall into the conjunction fallacy in this example. Which mammal are you? July 7th Find out which mammal resembles your personality by taking our quiz.
Science and technology studies - Wikipedia
A timeline of the dinosaurs April 28th Take a crash course on the history of the dinosaurs with our infographic. A history of the International Space Station February 16th We've collected together a brief history of this incredible feat in human engineering, politics, and bravery. Science and Technology Studies. Mathematical and Physical Sciences. Prospectus disclaimer. UCL Home UCL Graduate degrees Science, Technology and Society MSc Science, Technology and Society MSc This programme gives you the opportunity to study the main contexts of contemporary science and technology; gain a broad base in science policy, communication, sociology and engagement; enjoy flexibility in specialisation; and work in an interdisciplinary environment with research experts.
Key information Programme starts September Modes and duration Full time: 1 year. Application dates All applicants. Location: London, Bloomsbury. Entry requirements A minimum of a second-class Bachelor's degree in a relevant discipline from a UK university or an overseas qualification of an equivalent standard. English language requirements If your education has not been conducted in the English language, you will be expected to demonstrate evidence of an adequate level of English proficiency.
The English language level for this programme is: Good Further information can be found on our English language requirements page. International students Country-specific information, including details of when UCL representatives are visiting your part of the world, can be obtained from the International Students website.
MSc students undertake modules to the value of credits.
Teaching and learning The programme is delivered through a combination of seminars, lectures, tutorials and research supervision. Additional costs For more information on additional costs for prospective students please go to our estimated cost of essential expenditure at Accomodation and living costs.
Science, Technology & Society
For more advice please visit the STS MSc website For a comprehensive list of the funding opportunities available at UCL, including funding relevant to your nationality, please visit the Scholarships and Funding website. Employability The programme offers a range of transferable skills and networking opportunities.
Highlights of the programme include: the chance to develop practical media skills, including audio production learning to write for different audiences developing your skills in both practical and theoretical science communication, including working in a major London museum to meet and network with policy makers.
Applications Students are advised to apply as early as possible due to competition for places. Who can apply? Application deadlines All applicants 24 July Contact information. Ms Randalle Roberts, Programme Administrator sts-msc-admissions ucl. Register interest in your chosen subjects Receive notice of graduate open days, events and more Register now.
An engineer or public policy analyst would like to explore why innovation occurs unevenly across nations and time periods and how to encourage innovation in high-risk domains. A law student wants to know how nonwestern societies deal with intellectual property or bioethics. An anthropologist or a geneticist wishes to investigate how DNA databases affect individual rights and group identities. A historian would like to trace the evolution of nuclear secrecy policies from the postwar to the present. Through a structured program of interdisciplinary study, STS aims to satisfy these and many comparable lines of inquiry.
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STS is a field dedicated to studying the institutions and practices of scientists, engineers, physicians, architects, planners, and other technical professionals, as well as the complex relationships between science, technology and society. STS employs a variety of methods from the humanities and social sciences to examine how science and technology both influence and are influenced by their social, cultural, and material contexts.
A major area of interest is the role of technologies and technological systems in shaping the purposes, possibilities, and meanings of human existence, from the creation of novel biological organisms to the design of urban infrastructures and the management of global risks to health, food, security, human freedom, and the environment.
In case of doubt, the student should turn to the Secondary Field director, Sheila Jasanoff. Students may then be referred to an appropriate Faculty Affiliate in their Department or School for further advice.
On the Intersection of Science, Technology, and Society
These are general courses offering an overview of STS theories and methods, as well as a broad orientation to the field. Students may take additional framing courses to satisfy requirements. Science, Technology, and Society. Aims The STS secondary field serves a wide range of student interests and career plans.