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After the general election , Gladstone formed his second ministry, which saw the passage of the Third Reform Act as well as crises in Egypt and Ireland , where his government passed repressive measures but improved the legal rights of Irish tenant farmers. Back in office in early , Gladstone proposed home rule for Ireland but was defeated in the House of Commons; the resulting split in the Liberal Party helped keep them out of office—with one short break—for twenty years.

Gladstone formed his last government in , at the age of 82; the Second Home Rule Bill passed through the Commons but was defeated in the House of Lords in Gladstone left office in March , aged 84, as both the oldest person to serve as Prime Minister and the only Prime Minister to have served four terms.

He died three years later. Gladstone was known affectionately by his supporters as "The People's William" or the "G. Historians call him one of Britain's greatest leaders. In , the family name was changed from Gladstones to Gladstone by royal licence, his father was made a baronet, of Fasque and Balfour, in Although born and brought up in Liverpool, William Gladstone was of purely Scottish ancestry, his grandfather Thomas Gladstones was a prominent merchant from Leith , his maternal grandfather, Andrew Robertson , was Provost of Dingwall and a Sheriff-Substitute of Ross-shire.

His biographer John Morley described him as "a highlander in the custody of a lowlander", an adversary as "an ardent Italian in the custody of a Scotsman". One of his earliest childhood memories was being made to stand on a table and say "Ladies and gentlemen" to the assembled audience at a gathering to promote the election of George Canning as MP for Liverpool in In , young "Willy" visited Scotland for the first time, as he and his brother John travelled with their father to Edinburgh and Dingwall to visit their relatives. Willy and his brother were both made freemen of the burgh of Dingwall.

In , Gladstone travelled to London and Cambridge for the first time with his parents.

Whilst in London, he attended a service of thanksgiving with his family at St Paul's Cathedral following the Battle of Waterloo , where he saw the Prince Regent. William Gladstone was educated from — at a preparatory school at the vicarage of St. Thomas' Church at Seaforth, close to his family's residence, Seaforth House.

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In , William followed in the footsteps of his elder brothers and attended Eton College before matriculating in at Christ Church, where he read Classics and Mathematics , although he had no great interest in the latter subject. In December , he achieved the double first-class degree. Gladstone served as President of the Oxford Union , where he developed a reputation as an orator , which followed him into the House of Commons.

At university, Gladstone was a denounced Whig proposals for parliamentary reform. Upon his return to England , William was elected to Parliament in as a Tory Member of Parliament for Newark through the influence of the local patron, the Duke of Newcastle.

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Although Gladstone entered Lincoln's Inn in , with intentions of becoming a barrister , by he had requested that his name should be removed from the list because he no longer intended to be called to the Bar. In the House of Commons, Gladstone was a disciple of High Toryism and, as a scion of one of the largest slave-holding families in the world, he opposed both the abolition of slavery and factory legislation. Gladstone's father was a slave owner. He was educated at Trinity College, Cambridge. On 10 November he was appointed a Deputy Lieutenant of Lancashire and in the same year of was elected as a Member of Parliament for Preston and Lancashire which seats he held until , when he was ennobled as Baron Stanley of Bickerstaffe , of Bickerstaffe in the County Palatine of Lancaster, he was commissioned Colonel of the 1st Battalion of the Lancashire Supplementary Militia on 1 March He was breveted as a colonel in the regular Army with seniority from that date, retaining the rank until his regiment was disembodied, which occurred at the end of , he resigned his commission as colonel on 13 April In he succeeded his father as 13th Earl of Derby and withdrew from politics, instead concentrating on his natural history collection at Knowsley Hall, near Liverpool.

He had a large collection of living animals: at his death there were 1, birds and mammals at Knowsley , shipped to England by explorers such as Joseph Burke. From to he was President of the Linnean Society. Many of Derby's collections are now housed in Liverpool museum. Knowsley Safari Park at Knowsley, operated by the present Earl of Derby, is an attraction much visited by the population of the nearby City of Liverpool. UK National Archives.


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Nominally subordinate to the Lord Lieutenant , the " Chief Secretary to the Lord Lieutenant", from the early 19th century until the end of British rule he was the government minister with responsibility for governing Ireland equivalent to the role of a Secretary of State, it was the Chief Secretary, rather than the Lord Lieutenant, who sat in the British Cabinet.

British rule over much of Ireland came to an end as the result of the Irish War of Independence , which culminated in the establishment of the Irish Free State. In consequence the office of Chief Secretary was abolished, as well as that of Lord Lieutenant. The dominant position of the Lord Lieutenant at Dublin Castle had been central to the British administration of the Kingdom of Ireland for much of its history. Poynings' Law in particular meant that the Parliament of Ireland lacked an independent power of legislation, the Crown kept control of executive authority in the hands of the Lord Lieutenant and its own appointees, rather than in the hands of ministers responsible to the Irish parliament.

In Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland ordered the Lord Lieutenant, the Earl of Sussex , to appoint John Challoner of Dublin as Secretary of State for Ireland "because at this present there is none appointed to be Clerk of our Council there, considering how more meet it were, that in our realm there were for our honour one to be our Secretary there for the affairs of our Realm"; the appointment of a Secretary was intended to both improve Irish administration, to keep the Lord Lieutenant in line.

The role of Secretary of State for Ireland and Chief Secretary of Ireland were distinct positions, Thomas Pelham being the first individual appointed to both offices concurrently in Over time, the post of Chief Secretary increased in importance because of his role as manager of legislative business for the Government in the Irish House of Commons , in which he sat as an MP.

While the Irish administration was not responsible to the parliament, it needed to manage and influence it in order to ensure the passage of key legislative measures. In the Act of Union was passed by the Irish parliament, merging the kingdom into the new United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland with effect from 1 January ; the Chief Secretaryship was of particular importance in the run-up to the eventual enactment, on the second attempt, of the Act of Union, when Viscount Castlereagh held the post.

The Chief Secretary's exercise of patronage and direct bribery were central to delivering a parliamentary majority for the Union. Upon the Union the Irish parliament ceased to exist.


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However, the existing system of administration in Ireland continued broadly in place, with the offices of Lord Lieutenant and Chief Secretary retaining their respective roles. The Irish Free State, comprising the greater part of Ireland, would become independent on 6 December In Northern Ireland, a new Government of Northern Ireland was established with a Prime Minister of Northern Ireland; this government was suspended in , the position of Secretary of State for Northern Ireland was created as a position in the British cabinet.

This list includes holders of a key political office in the British administration in Ireland. Nominally subordinate to the Lord Lieutenant , from the late 18th century until the end of British rule he was the government minister with responsibility for governing Ireland. Secretary of State for Northern Ireland, similar position in the British cabinet from On 1 May , she adopted the additional title of Empress of India.

Both the Duke and the King died in , Victoria was raised under close supervision by her mother, Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld , she inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died, leaving no surviving legitimate children. The United Kingdom was an established constitutional monarchy, in which the sovereign held little direct political power. Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments.

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Victoria married her first cousin Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in , their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the sobriquet "the grandmother of Europe ". After Albert's death in , Victoria avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered.

Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration, her reign of 63 years and seven months was longer than that of any of her predecessors and is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, political and military change within the United Kingdom, was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire , she was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her death in precipitated a succession crisis that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. Additional names proposed by her parents—Georgina and Augusta—were dropped on the instructions of Kent's eldest brother, the Prince Regent.

The Duke of Clarence and the Duke of Kent married on the same day in , but both of Clarence's legitimate daughters died as infants. The first of these was Princess Charlotte, born and died on 27 March , two months before Victoria was born. Victoria's father died in January A week her grandfather died and was succeeded by his eldest son as George IV.

SMITH STANLEY, Edward George Geoffrey (1799-1869).

Victoria was third in line to the throne after York and Clarence. Clarence's second daughter was Princess Elizabeth of Clarence who lived for twelve weeks from 10 December to 4 March and, while Elizabeth lived, Victoria was fourth in line; the Duke of York died in When George IV died in , he was succeeded by his next surviving brother, Clarence, as William IV, Victoria became heir presumptive; the Regency Act made special provision for Victoria's mother to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor.

King William distrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, in he declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided. Victoria described her childhood as "rather melancholy". Her mother was protective, Victoria was raised isolated from other children under the so-called " Kensington System ", an elaborate set of rules and protocols devised by the Duchess and her ambitious and domineering comptroller, Sir John Conroy , rumoured to be the Duchess's lover.

The system prevented the princess from meeting people whom her mother and Conroy deemed undesirable, was designed to render her weak and dependent upon them; the Duchess avoided the court because she was scandalised by the presence of King William's illegitimate children. Victoria shared a bedroom with her mother every night, studied with private tutors to a regular timetable, spent her play-hours with her dolls and her King Charles Spaniel , Dash, her lessons included French, German and Latin , but she spoke only English at home.

In , the Duchess of Kent and Conroy took Victoria across the centre of England to visit the Malvern Hills , stopping at towns and great country houses along the way. Similar journeys to oth. He played a central role in the creation of the modern Conservative Party, defining its policies and its broad outreach. Disraeli is remembered for his influential voice in world affairs, his political battles with the Liberal Party leader William Ewart Gladstone , his one-nation conservatism or " Tory democracy", he made the Conservatives the party most identified with the power of the British Empire.

He is the only British prime minister to have been of Jewish birth, he was a novelist , publishing works of fiction as prime minister. Disraeli was born in Bloomsbury a part of Middlesex , his father left Judaism after a dispute at his synagogue. After several unsuccessful attempts, Disraeli entered the House of Commons in In the Prime Minister at the time, Sir Robert Peel , split the party over his proposal to repeal the Corn Laws , which involved ending the tariff on imported grain.

Disraeli clashed with Peel in the House of Commons. Disraeli became a major figure in the party; when Lord Derby , the party leader, thrice formed governments in the s and s, Disraeli served as Chancellor of the Exchequer and Leader of the House of Commons. Upon Derby's retirement in , Disraeli became Prime Minister before losing that year's general election, he returned to the Opposition, before leading the party to winning a majority in the general election. He maintained a close friendship with Queen Victoria , who in appointed him Earl of Beaconsfield. Disraeli's second term was dominated by the Eastern Question—the slow decay of the Ottoman Empire and the desire of other European powers, such as Russia , to gain at its expense.

Disraeli arranged for the British to purchase a major interest in the Suez Canal Company. In , faced with Russian victories against the Ottomans, he worked at the Congress of Berlin to obtain peace in the Balkans at terms favourable to Britain and unfavourable to Russia, its longstanding enemy. This diplomatic victory over Russia established Disraeli as one of Europe's leading statesmen. World events thereafter moved against the Conservatives.

Controversial wars in Afghanistan and South Africa undermined his public support, he angered British farmers by refusing to reinstitute the Corn Laws in response to poor harvests and cheap imported grain.

With Gladstone conducting a massive speaking campaign, his Liberals bested Disraeli's Conservatives at the general election.